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Av 9

Tish'a B'Av

Destruction of Second Temple, 69 CE

Destruction of First Temple, 423 BCE

Birth of Moshiach

Birth of Jeremiah

Exodus generation condemned to die, 1312 BCE

Spies return

Betar falls to Romans, 135

World War I begins, 1914

Warsaw ghetto decreed, 1941

Expulsion from England, 1290

Expulsion from Spain, 1492

First Roman ghetto, 1555

Spain sacks Tunis, massacres Jews, 1535

Konstantynow massacres, 1648

Hungary grants Jews rights, 1849

Death of R. Johanan b. Mattathias Treves, liturgical poet, chief rabbi of France, 1429

Death of R. Isaac Spitz, 1768, Birkat Yizhak

Death of R. Jacob Isaac Horowitz (haHozeh Lublin), 1815, Divrei Emet

Death of Abraham Isaac Castello, poet and preacher, Leghorn, 1789

Death of Meir Schiff, Talmudic author, 1798

Birth of Lazare Wogue, theological writer, 1817

Death of Otto von Bismarck, German Chancellor and somewhat of an anti-semite, 1895